Internal Curing Overview & References

Internal curing is a practical way of supplying additional curing water throughout the concrete mixture thereby enhancing conventional surface curing. This is done by using water absorbed in the inclusions of prewetted ESCS lightweight aggregate that is drawn-out during the hydration process. This is commonly referred to as “curing concrete from the inside out.” Extensive research has shown that internal curing reduces autogenous shrinkage, drying shrinkage, plastic shrinkage and the cracking associated with all three. Research has also shown that internally cured concrete has lower restrained shrinkage cracking, reduced fluid absorption, improve compressive strength and reduced ion diffusion, all of which improves the concrete’s service life.


ACI Committees 213-308 R-13 (2013) (308-213)R-13 Report on Internally Cured Concrete Using Prewetted Absorptive Lightweight Aggregate. 12

ACI 231 R-10 (2010) 231R-10 Report on Early-Age Cracking: Causes, Measurement, and Mitigation. 46

Bella C Di, Villani C, Hausheer E, Weiss J (2012) Chloride Transport Measurements for a Plain and Internally Cured Concrete Mixture. ACI Spec Publ 290:1–16. doi: 10.14359/51684183

Bentz DP, Snyder KA (1999) Protected paste volume in concrete: Extension to internal curing using saturated lightweight fine aggregate. Cem Concr Res 29:1863–1867. doi: 10.1016/S0008-8846(99)00178-7

Bentz DP (2009) Influence of internal curing using lightweight aggregates on interfacial transition zone percolation and chloride ingress in mortars. Cem Concr Compos 31:285–289. doi: 10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2009.03.001

Bentz DP, Weiss WJ (2011) Internal curing: A 2010 state-of-the-art review (NISTIR 7765). 72

Cusson D, Lounis Z, Daigle L (2010) Benefits of internal curing on service life and life-cycle cost of high performance concrete bridge decks – A case study. Cem Concr Compos 32:339–350. doi:10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2010.02.007

Golias M, Weiss J, Bentz D (2013) Influence of Exposure Conditions on the Efficiency of Internal Curing in Concrete. Adv Civ Eng Mater 2:1–12. doi:10.1520/ACEM20120023

Henkensiefken R, Bentz D, Nantung T, Weiss J (2009) Volume change and cracking in internally cured mixtures made with saturated lightweight aggregate under sealed and unsealed conditions. Cem Concr Compos: 427–437. doi: 10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2009.04.003

Henkensiefken R, Briatka P, Bentz D, et al. (2010) Plastic shrinkage cracking in internally cured mixtures made with pre-wetted lightweight aggregate. Concr Int 32:49–54

Jensen OM, Hansen PF (2001) Water-entrained cement-based materials: I. Principles and theoretical background. Cem Concr Res 31:647–654. doi: 10.1016/S0008-8846(01)00463-X

Kovler K, Jensen OM (2007) Report rep 041: Internal curing of concrete–State-of-the-art report of RILEM Technical Committee 196-ICC. 161

Lopez M, Kahn LF, Kurtis KE (2009) Characterization of elastic and time-dependent deformations in high performance lightweight concrete by image analysis. Cem Concr Res 39:610–619. doi: 10.1016/j.cemconres.2009.03.015

Peled A, Castro J, Weiss J (2010) Atomic Force Microscopy Examinations of Mortar Made by Using Water-Filled Lightweight Aggregate. Transp Res Rec J Transp Res Board 2141:92–101. doi: 10.3141/2141-16

Radlinska A, Pease B, Weiss J (2006) A preliminary numerical investigation on the influence of material variability in the early-age cracking behavior of restrained concrete. Mater Struct 40:375–386. doi:10.1617/s11527-006-9118-8

Tritsch N, Darwin D, Browning J (2005) SM Report No. 77: Evaluating the Shrinkage and Cracking Behavior of Concrete Using the Restrained Ring and Free Shrinkage Tests. 178